Breast Cancer

4 mins read

Introduction
Breast cancer is a malignancy (abnormal cells) arising in the mammary glands. It affects both men and women, although it is far more common in women. It is that type of cancer that develops from the breast tissue. The first sign of breast cancer often is a breast lump or an abnormal mammogram. Breast cancer stages range from early, curable breast cancer to metastatic breast cancer, with a variety of breast cancer treatments. Male breast cancer is not uncommon and must be taken seriously.

Types
Breast cancer can be described as invasive or in situ. Invasive breast cancers are tumors that have spread beyond the ducts or lobules of the breast and have begun to invade normal tissues. In situ breast cancers – Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) or Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS) — are considered to be noninvasive forms of breast cancer. In these conditions, abnormalities in the cells have caused proliferation of atypical cells, but these cells have not spread beyond the ducts or lobules of the breast.

Epidemiology
Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women. Breast cancer comprises 22.9% of invasive cancers in women and 16 percent of all female cancers. In 2012, it comprised 25.2% of cancers diagnosed in women, making it the most common female cancer.

Causes
1) Lifestyle –

  • Smoking tobacco, cigarette, hookah or any other harmful smoking products increases the risk from 35% to 50%.
  • Use of oral contraceptives and development of premenopausal breast cancer.
  • Abortion

2) Diet – alcohol intake, high fat diet and obesity.
3) Genetics
4) Medical conditions – Breast changes like atypical ductal hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ, found in benign breast conditions.

Symptoms

  • Most common symptom is a mass or painless lump in the breast or armpit that is hard, irregular in shape and usually painless.
  • Nipple discharge
  • Redness or nipple retraction (inward turning)
  • Changes in the skin of the breast (such as dimpling or an orange-peel appearance), and size and shape changes or swelling of part of the breast.
  • Symptoms of breast cancer in men include a lump in the breast, nipple pain and tenderness, fluid from the nipple, inversion or retraction of the nipple, and sores around the nipple. Enlargement of both breasts in males is typically not due to cancer but due to hormonal or other factors.

Diagnosis
Most types of breast cancer are easy to diagnose by microscopic analysis of a sample – or biopsy – of the affected area of the breast. There are, however, rarer types of breast cancer that require specialized lab exams.

Together, physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and FNAC can be used to diagnose breast cancer with a good degree of accuracy. Other options for biopsy include a core biopsy or vacuum-assisted breast biopsy.

Breast self examination is an option for women starting in their 20s. Women should report any breast changes to their health-care professional.

Treatment

  1. Surgery – Surgery involves the physical removal of the tumor, typically along with some of the surrounding tissue. It’s of three types:
  • Mastectomy
  • Quadrantectomy
  • Lumpectomy
  1. Medication
  • Hormone blocking therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  1. Radiation

Alternative Treatment
Monoclonal antibodies–Trastuzumab  a monoclonal antibody to HER2 (a cell receptor that is especially active in some breast cancer cells), has improved the 5-year disease free survival of stage 1–3 HER2-positive breast cancers to about 87 percent (overall survival 95 percent).

Conclusion
Breast cancer may not cause its sign and symptom until the disease has spread significantly, which is one reason why screening mammograms are essential. Symptoms of breast cancers are similar in younger, premenopausal women and in older women (postmenopausal or over about 50 years of age). Breast cancer tends to spread through the lymphatic system to lymph nodes. Lymph nodes under the arm can be affected (causing swelling of the armpit) as can be lymph nodes around the collarbone. These areas can present with swellings or nodes even before the tumor in the breast is palpable.

Read More:
7 Things You Should Know About Breast Cancer
Relieve It With A Herb: Lemongrass For Cancer
Science Says: An Aspirin A Day Might Keep Breast Cancer Away
10 Celebs Who Have Survived Breast Cancer
Science Says: Sleep Deprivation Linked To Poorer Chances Of Breast Cancer Survival


References
1. “Breast Cancer”.NCI. Retrieved 29 June 2014

2. “Breast Cancer Treatment” NCI. 2014-05-23. Retrieved29 June2014.

3. Saunders, Christobel; Jassal, Sunil (2009 Breast Cancer (1. Ed.) Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. Chapter 13.

4. Nelson, HD; Tyne, K; Naik, A; Bougatsos, C; Chan, B; Nygren, P; Humphrey, L (November 2009). “Screening for Breast Cancer: Systematic Evidence Review Update for the US Preventive Services Task Force [Internet].”

5. “Screening for Best Cancer” US Preventative Services Task Force. December 2009. Retrieved24 December 2012.

6. Gøtzsche PC, Jørgensen KJ (4 Jun 2013). “Screening for breast cancer with mammography.”The Cochrane database of systematic reviews”

7. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (August 2002). “Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease.”Lancet” 360 (9328): 187–95.

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