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Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that is caused by dengue virus. The disease is characterized high fever, rash, irritation of the skin, and severe cramps or muscle pain, whereas in severe cases, the symptoms may include blood pressure shock, hemorrhagic fever, profused bleeding, or even death. The diseases is also known as breakbone fever. The causative agent of dengue belongs to the genus Aedes. The pathogen, Aedes aegypti is the most prevalent agent of dengue.
Dengue has been characterized as ‘fatal’ in many parts of world. In Africa, and Southern parts of America, the prevalency of the disease is comparatively high. The disease is second to malaria in terms of prevalency in developing and under-developed countries.
Dengue fever is caused due to the virus, which belong to the genus Flavivirus. The virus is spread with the help of a carrier, Aedes mosquito, and results in the development of dengue symptoms. The risk of developing the infection from the spread of the virus is known as dengue hemorrhagic fever. In most of the cases, recovery occurs; however, in more severe cases, proper diagnosis and early treatment are required.
Symptoms Of Dengue
Once the person is infected with mosquito bite, symptoms start to appear within 4-8 days. The symptoms include:
- Nausea and vomiting
- Severe headache
- High fever
- Severe muscle cramps and/or joint pain
- Skin rash and swelling
- Pain in eyes
- Bleeding, however, rare
- Blood pressure shock (severe dengue fever)
Some of the symptoms associated with severe dengue include:
- Sudden drop in blood pressure
- Formation of clumps in blood vessels
- Continuous vomiting and indigestion
- Abdominal pain and stomach ache
Treatment Strategies In Dengue
Currently, no specific drugs are available to treat the condition. However, following are some of the strategies that are most commonly in managing the symptoms and alleviating the conditions of the individual.
Various drugs have been indicated in relieving pain and fever associated with the symptoms. These drugs include: aspirin, paracetamol, ibuprofen, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
Intake of water has been recommended in the treatment of dengue. People who consume plenty of water seldom are diagnosed with signs of dengue. Maintaining hydration levels above the threshold limit has been found to significantly affect the symptoms and living conditions.
It is usually recommended in more severe cases of dengue. In most of the cases, blood cells are the first ones to get affected. As a result, the oxygen-carrying capacity and immunity are significantly affected. This method, however, complex, is associated with elevated symptoms in the individuals. Complications
Dengue fever or hemorrhagic dengue fever is associated with other lethal complications, which include sudden drop in blood pressure, cardiac shock, severe internal bleeding, and death in most severe cases.
Due to unavailability of any specified drug for dengue, it is recommended to follow some of the common precautionary measures to avoid the infection.
- Use of anti-mosquito repellents, coils, or paper to ward off the mosquitoes at night.
- Destroy the breeding habitats of the mosquitoes, still water, old containers, air-coolers, wet garbage, etc.
- Avoid outdoor activities at night or early morning before dawn.
- Use of proper clothing when visiting mosquito-breeding areas. Exposed surfaces should be well hidden with long-sleeve shirts, full pants, and socks.
Besides the aforementioned treatment strategies, some alternative treatments are also used for treating dengue.
The medicine eupotorium perfoliatum is commonly used for dengue fever. In addition, ipecac is also used in dengue for the management of fever, discomfort, vomiting, and bleeding.
Papaya Leaf Extract
The extract from the leaves of papaya tree is used in improving platelet count in dengue patients.
In this procedure, the extract of the pegaga leaves and the papaya fruit are mixed. The mixture is known to have antiviral effects and significantly induces blood production.
Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease, which is characterized by high fever, skin rash, internal bleeding. However, in severe cases, the disease can lead to sudden drop in blood pressure, cardiac shock, or death. Various treatment strategies include hydration, drugs, papaya leaf extract, Ayurvedic medicine, and blood transfusion. The spread of the infection is prevented using mosquito repellents and clean, protected clothes. Early diagnosis is essential to reduce the risk of complications, including hemorrhagic dengue fever and severe bleeding.
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