Dyslexia

5 mins read

Introduction
Dyslexia is a learning disability, which is characterized by difficulty in learning. Dyslexia patients often find it hard to learn sounds, letters, and spellings. The disorder is common among children, and is independent of the demographic variation. However, in some of the regions, it is called as specific reading disability.

Epidemiology
No clinical record is available to establish specific occurrence of the disease. The disease, however, is not only restricted to the difficulty in translating sounds into words, but Chinese dyslexia is also very prominent, with difficulty in translating shaped or characters into meaning.

Causes
Dyslexia is an inherited disorder. However, various factors that contribute to the development of the disorder are:

Malformations In Brain
Various malformations such as ectopias and vascular micro-malformations are supposed to contribute to the development of learning disability in language center of the brain.

Environmental Effects
Although the disease is genetic in nature, various studies have demonstrated the role of environmental effects on the dysfunction of the genes associated with the development of learning center of the brain. Moreover, the environment plays a critical role in moderating the learning and memory.

Symptoms Of Dyslexia
Dyslexia symptoms are not apparent initially. The signs and symptoms of dyslexia vary with age. Following are some of the age-dependent symptoms:

Infant Or Preschool Kids

  • Late start of talking or spelling words
  • Difficulty in learning new words, characters, and features
  • Difficulty in learning and reciting nursery rhymes
  • Confusion between colors, names, characters and their spellings
  • Partially developed motor skills
  • Unable to carry out daily chores as compared to normal kids

School Going Kids

  • Underdeveloped reading skills
  • Poor performance in academics, sports, and home
  • Unable to differentiate between similar sounding words and characters
  • Unable to grasp instructions such as turn to page 2, para 4, line 1
  • Poor comprehending skills

Teenagers
Most of the symptoms in teenagers or adults are common to ones in children. However, symptoms are more pronounced due to the structural complexity of the learning process, course, and performance. Some of the common symptoms are:

  • Trouble learning a foreign language
  • Unable to learn, recite, or summarize a story
  • Unable to perform loud reading
  • Poor social performance with peers, friends, and colleagues
  • Unable to manage daily chores such as homework, time, meeting with friends, etc.
  • Specifically, poor in mathematics

Diagnosis
There is no scientific evidence on the appropriate diagnosis of dyslexia. However, picking up symptoms is the most commonly used method to diagnose dyslexia. Following are some of the common diagnostic strategies.

Questionnaires
These help in establishing the disorder based on the response to each query.

Neurological Testing
These are not yet established as the appropriate diagnosis measure. However, the test can assist in understanding the brain imaging patterns.

Treatment Strategies In Dyslexia
Although the condition is non-curable, there are various strategies that are effective in the management of dyslexia. Early diagnosis and management is essential to improve the condition.

Education
The disability of learning can be improved by educating the individual about the comprehensive therapies, consequences, and symptoms associated with dyslexia. This not only helps in applying effective intervention strategies, but also aims at developing a more positive outlook toward the therapies or intervention.

Therapy Techniques
Psychological therapies are the most commonly used strategies. Additionally, techniques associated with letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes) are quite effective in alleviating learning disability.

Phonological therapy involves the learning of words and characters based on the elongated sound.

Audio-Visual Aids
These are helpful in inducing focused-based learning in dyslexics.

Complications
Dyslexia remains as one of the least studied disorders. The condition is associated with many complications; however, most of these complications are social than physiological.

Learning Disability
In dyslexia, learning ability is severely affected. This leads to difficulty in keeping track of subjects, poor performance at school, regular complaints, and discouragement.

Social Coping
In most of the cases, dyslexia leads to low self-esteem, depression, loss of interest in various activities, aggression, and sometimes self destructive behaviors.

Personal Relationships
One of the most critical complexities associated with dyslexia is the effect on personal relationships. They, in turn, lead to long-term personal, emotional, and physical consequences on the individual.

Conclusion
Dyslexia is a genetic disorder, which is characterized by learning disabilities. If left untreated, it can lead to severe long-term complications such as social coping, learning difficulty, and poor performance. Audio-visual aids, psychological therapies, and learning techniques are commonly employed in the management of dyslexia.

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References
1. Stein J. Dyslexia: the Role of Vision and Visual Attention. Curr Dev Disord Rep. 2014;1(4):267–280.

2. Barton JJ, Hanif HM, Eklinder Björnström L, Hills C. The word-length effect in reading: a review. Cogn Neuropsychol. 2014;31(5-6):378–412.

3. de Beer J, Engels J, Heerkens Y, van der Klink J. Factors influencing work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2014 Jan 24;14:77.

4. Liao CH, Deng C, Hamilton J, et al. The role of rapid naming in reading development and dyslexia in Chinese. J Exp Child Psychol. 2015 Feb;130:106–22.

5. Multhauf B, Buschmann A. Parent participation in the treatment of dyslexic children – the results of a paper-pencil questionnaire. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2014 Jul;42(4):233–41.

6. Duff FJ, Hulme C, Grainger K, et al. Reading and language intervention for children at risk of dyslexia: a randomised controlled trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014 Nov;55(11):1234–43.

7. Kere J. The molecular genetics and neurobiology of developmental dyslexia as model of a complex phenotype. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Sep 19;452(2):236–43.

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